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Conjugate verbs in Italian – the present, past and future tenses

Conjugate verbs in Italian – the present, past and future tenses

Italian verbs can be divided into three groups: ending in “-are” (cantare, mangiare), “-ere” (leggere, vedere), “-ire” (dormire, partire).

PRESENTE (PRESENT TENSE)

Parlare (to talk)

Prima coniugazione

(1st conjugation)

Vendere (to sell)

Seconda coniugazione

(2nd conjugation)

Dormire (to sleep)

Terza coniugazione

(3rd conjugation)

Io (I)

parl-o

vend-o

dorm-o

Tu (you)

parl-i

vend-i

dorm-i

Lui / lei (he / she / it)

parl-a

vend-e

dorm-e

Noi (we)

parl-iamo

vend-iamo

dorm-iamo

Voi (you)

parl-ate 

vend-ete

dorm-ite

Loro (they)

parl-ano

vend-ono

dorm-ono 

There are also two auxiliares: “essere” (to be) and “avere” (to have).

 

Essere (to be)

Avere (to have)

Io (I)

sono

ho

Tu (you)

sei

hai

Lui / lei (he / she / it) 

è

ha

Noi (we)

siamo

abbiamo

Voi (you)

siete

avete

Loro (they)

sono

hanno

This concerns regular verbs, but in Italian we also have irregular verbs, they do not follow the typical rules of the conjugation to which they belong. The only possible solution is to memorize them.

 

Andare (to go)

Fare (to do)

Dare (to give)

Io (I)

vado

faccio

do

Tu (you)

vai

fai

dai

Lui / lei (he / she / it)

va

fa

dà

Noi (we)

andiamo

facciamo

diamo

Voi (you)

andate

fate

date

Loro (they)

vanno

fanno

danno

 

Tenere (to keep)

Scegliere (to choose)

Bere (to drink)

Io (I)

tengo

scelgo

bevo

Tu (you)

tieni

scegli

bevi

Lui / lei (he / she / it)

tiene

sceglie

beve

Noi (we)

teniamo

scegliamo

beviamo

Voi (you)

tenete

scegliete

bevete

Loro (they)

tengono

scelgono

bevono

 

Venire (to come)

Sedere (to sit)

Uscire (to go out)

Io (I)

vengo

siedo

esco

Tu (you)

vieni

siedi

esci

Lui / lei (he / she / it)

viene

siede

esce

Noi (we)

vengono

sediamo

usciamo

Voi (you)

venite

sedete

uscite

Loro (they)

vengono

siedono

escono

The most commonly used past tenses in Italian are: Passato prossimo (Present perfect) and Imperfetto (Imperfect tense). read more

Learning languages and culture with the help of memes

Learning languages and culture with the help of memes

MEMES are one of the subjects that most young people like to talk about because they are so popular and influential all over the world, you can find them in all languages, designed for everybody – even the elderly. You can find them everywhere: on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and there are even platforms designed for this kind of content, where people post memes, which eventually reach one of the social media sites listed above.

What’s the deal with memes?

Indeed, how did this even become a worldwide phenomenon? Let’s begin with a short introduction about it. According to Wikipedia, a meme is an idea, behaviour, or style that comes to life through imitation and carries some kind of symbolistic value. The word itself first appeared in a 1976 book written by Richard Dawkins (The Selfish Gene), in which he described a meme as a self-replicating unit of transmission, in biological terms. Practically, it has the same principle as today, but it was back then used to define a different purpose. However, the first visual representation of a meme appeared during World War II in a graffito called “Kilroy was here”.  It became quite popular in the US because it was associated with GIs (initials used for the US soldiers) depicting a  bald-headed man with a prominent nose peeking over a wall with his fingers clutching the wall. But, if I were to talk about <strong>memes</strong> as they are today, well they became most popular with the development of the internet and computers in general. read more

How to learn languages during self-isolation

How to learn languages during self-isolation

Times are hard, folks.

Wherever you are in the world, we know for sure that the moment you turn the TV on, you are bombarded with tragic news about the current situation regarding Coronavirus. We believe that every social media is soaked enough with information about this topic, so we won’t give you any more detail about it.

On the contrary, we’d like to try to take your mind off it and provide you with some ways to kill your time during this boring and draining lockdown. At the end of the day, who says you can’t enrich yourself and make the most out of your time even if you’re stuck inside your house? In fact, you can still have access to a great number of entertaining resources from there. read more

Differences between American English and British English

Differences between American English and British English

Although the United States and the United Kingdom share the same language, many differences can be found in the vocabulary, the grammar or the pronunciation. On top of that, both countries have very different cultures, which can be found in the food, their history, the sports they play, or even the TV shows they usually watch.

In contrast, it’s true that they both share the mile system, but it is actually the only measurement system that they have in common! In short, it can be said that the two countries are divided by a common language! All of these points will be developed in this article (among many others), so if you’re interested to discover all the differences, they will be listed below!

Grammar in British and American English: what are the differences?

First things first, the basis of any language is grammar. You can’t begin to learn a language unless you know its alphabet and the basis of its grammar, as you generally build your sentences with verbs if you don’t want to speak like a robot!

Among all the differences, I’ll start with the irregular verbs. Yes, if you want to learn English or if you’re already struggling with irregular verbs, be aware that there are plenty of differences. For example, the widely used verb “get” is also irregular. You would say get, got, gotten in American English whereas you’d say get, got, got in British English. You can note that British English uses the past participle more often! You can also find differences in endings just like in the verbs “burn”, “learn”, or “dream”. In the past tense, you would add -ed in American English but a -t in British English.

You can find other spelling differences below, with a short explanation followed with examples:

-“ou” (UK) vs. “o” (US): “colour” vs. “color” / “favourite” vs. “favorite”. The difference is that the American version gets closer to the way it is actually pronounced than the British one.

-re (UK) vs. -er (US): such as “theatre” or “theater”. The reason behind this difference is because British people have borrowed and adopted many French words, while keeping the French spelling. On the contrary, American English decided to make the word American and reversed the two final letters. Same reason for the following.

-nce (UK) vs. -nse (US): “licence” or “license”. For the noun, the British spelling will get into line with the French spelling. But the verb is “to license” in both English. Careful, this isn’t always the case! You have “defence” in British English but “defense” in American English!

You can also differentiate many verbs ending in -ise (UK) vs. -ize (US). Example: “organise” (UK) or “organize” (US).

Mum or Mom? Both are commonly used in British and American English respectively, but the first spelling “mum” can also refer to a flower.

Last but not least, the grammar section! Should you double the L between two vowels? Well, if you’re a British or you want to learn British English, then you should! You’d write “travelling”, “traveller”, “travelled”. Americans would only use one L though!

Careful: some exceptions exist and don’t double the L in “appealing”, “devilish”, “loyalist”, or “travelogue”.

Now, to express possession in English, you can find “have” VS. “have got”. In Britain, people tend to say “I’ve got” while an American will simply say “I have”. Both mean the same but the grammar differs slightly.

Finally, British people use A LOT of question tags, both in oral conversations and dialogs. It’s just natural for them to add “don’t you?”, “hasn’t it?” or “aren’t you” at the end of their sentences, even though they are not always asking a question. With “isn’t it” for instance, you could hear “The weather is so nice today, isn’t it?”. In America though, they tend to say “right?”, just like “The weather is so nice today, right?”.

Vocabulary and spelling in English: British vs. American

Until now, the differences listed above wouldn’t have caused any problem for a Brit or an American to understand you. They would have just noticed on which side of the ocean you’re standing! But it comes to different words, they might feel a bit destabilised. Many people would understand what you mean, especially because they know which differences exist now between the two languages. However, if you talk to a young child or an elderly person who doesn’t know the differences, for them, it might sound like you’re speaking a different language.

Let me give you an example. You have “garbage” in American English but “rubbish” in British English. Both mean the same, but an American would never say “rubbish” and vice-versa. You have SO many differences with simple words just like these. To be able to know and distinguish all of them, you’d have to live in these countries for some months. For now, you can find some of them in the following table:

AMERICAN ENGLISH

BRITISH ENGLISH

Faucet Tap
Cotton candy Candy floss
Stroller Pushchair
Cart Trolley
Front desk Reception
(French)  fries Chips (French fries for thinner ones)
Chips Crisps
Apartment Flat
Elevator Lift
Closet

Wardrobe

Finally, you also have “subway” vs. “tube”/”underground” which express “metro”. In this case, people will understand what you’re talking about, although the tube can only refer to the London underground. So even within the UK, the different regions will use different words to express the same thing. Talking about regions, different pronunciations and accents can be found at the national level, but the main difference is found between the two countries.

The accent: do you speak like a British or like an American?

The American pronunciation follows the “General American English” whereas the “Received Pronunciation” is followed by the British English people. The major differences of pronunciation are obviously found in consonants and vowels. You’ll be able to notice them once you’ve watched enough episodes of your favourite Anglophone series on Netflix! It is actually the best option to learn if you don’t have the opportunity to go and stay in an English-speaking country! So keep your ears wide open!

What is the most striking is the -t pronunciation. It is almost a [d] in American English when placed between two vowels. But in British English, it remains a -t sound. Example for the word “twitter”: TwiTTe: (UK) vs TwiDeR (US).

In addition, the final -r in American English is pronounced, but not in British English. For example, the word “car”, you can hear a “caR” (US) or a “ca:” (UK). Also, when placed between a vowel and a consonant, the British -r isn’t pronounced either. You’d say “tu:n” for “turn” to a British.

The two diphthongs /oʊ/ or /əʊ/ also differentiates the two languages. As the phonetic spelling indicates, Americans rather pronounce the “o” contrary to the “e” for the Brits. For the word “close”, you’d say “clOse” in American but “clOEse” in a British accent.

The units of measure in British and American English

You may be quite at a loss when it comes to units of measurements and conversions, as both countries do not use the International System of Units (SI). The US uses the customary units while the U.K uses Imperial units. Actually, it is quite hard to remember them all, except if you learn them by heart. Here is a list summarising the ones you should know:

  • 1. The temperature outside: Fahrenheit (US) vs Celcius (UK)
  • 2. To measure your ingredients while cooking: cup (US) vs. grams/liters (UK)
  • 3.To measure liquids like petrol(UK)/gasoline(US): US gallon vs. Imperial gallon

But for distances (miles, yards, inches, feet), volumes (cubic foot, cubic yard), weight (LBS) and for areas (square inch, square mile etc): it’s the same and thank god for that!

To finish a bit more lightly: the two countries culture

The two countries’ history at the time of the colonial period

The US was a British colony before they gained their independence from the UK in 1776. Since, they’ve been building their own society and laws, to become one of the most powerful countries in the world.

Westminster vs. Washington: the political structures read more

5 reasons why learning German is not as complicated as many people think

5 reasons why learning German is not as complicated as many people think

Goethe. Schiller. Kant. Brecht. – German is the language of poets and thinkers. The West Germanic language is therefore also known to be difficult and complicated. If you google “learn German” you can even read articles and blog posts that list reasons why it is impossible to learn German. We want to stand up to them: As with all languages, there are heavy and light components in German. Yes, German grammar is not the easiest. But is German hard to learn? Definitely no! There are enough reasons why German is not as complicated as many people think and actually easy to learn. We have summarized 5 of them to take away your fear of learning German.

#1 Germans hardly use tenses

Present Perfect Progressive or Simple Past Perfect? Going to Future or Will Future? There are so many tenses in English that even native speakers cannot master them all. In German language you have it easy here: In 99 % of all cases you can use Simple Past when talking about the past. It is also common to use the present tense even when you are talking about the future. For example: No matter whether you want to go to the cinema now, today or tomorrow, in German you always say it in the identical tense: “Ich gehe jetzt/heute/morgen ins Kino”.

#2 German works like an ad-on system

What is the world’s largest toy production company? You know the answer for sure! Nearly everyone played with the colored stones as a child. Correct, it’s LEGO. But what few people know is that the modular system we are familiar with is also applicable to the German language. Because in German a lot of nouns are made up of other words that are simply added together. These new words are then called “Kompositum”. There is no rule that says how many words can be combined with each other. Here is an example to help you understand it better:

German  Translation  
Haus house
Haus + Tür = Haustür house + door = entry door
Haus + Tür + Schlüssel = Haustürschlüssel house + door + key = latchkey

You can go on like this forever. Simple, right? A little fun fact in passing: There is a German word that has 80 letters:

“Donaudampfschifffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft”.

Believe it or not, it exists. But don’t worry, no normal German in the world can read or say this German word, let alone use it.

#3 You say what you read

While in English or French you have to learn not only how to write words, but also how to pronounce them, you don’t have this difficulty when learning German. You will also notice that many of the words you learn will look familiar to you, because German and English have the same linguistic roots. Whether “Generation”, “Hunger”, “Ball” or “Material” you surely know all these words from English, only that you pronounce them in German exactly the way you read them. That makes learning German much easier.

#4 The word “Bitte” helps you in many different situations

If you want to learn German, the ultimate tip for beginners is: Learn the word “Bitte”. Because this little word with only five letters can be used in many different situations. Here are a few examples:

  • Bitte. = You are welcome.
  • Bitte. = Please.
  • Bitte. = Go ahead.
  • Bitte. = Here you go.
  • Bitte? = Pardon?

#5 Der, die or das? – If you’re insecure, use “die”

“Der”, “die” or “das Blume” (= flower)? The correct answer is: “die Blume”. In German, every noun also has a companion, the “Artikel”. This is probably what most people who learn German are afraid of. When do I use which article? The best thing is to learn the “Artikel” while learning vocabulary. But if you forget which is the right one, just use

“die” read more

The differences between European Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese

The differences between European Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese

You can learn a lot about a language by its country’s history and culture. So, if one of your goals is to learn Portuguese, the history of Brazil and the history of Portugal are very important in order to understand not only the Portuguese language but also the main differences between both variants.

Origin of the European Portuguese

The European Portuguese origin comes from the vulgar Latin. The language was first introduced by the roman who occupied the Iberian Peninsula. We can call Portuguese a neolatin language, since it is one of the modern languages that originated from the vulgar Latin. The Portuguese language suffered modifications with the invasion of the Germans and later the Arabs, although their language was never established in total. In the XV century, the peninsula was reconquered from the Arabs and after that different dialects emerged from the contact of the Arabic and Latin.

Although the language wasn’t established in total, the Arabic occupation in Portugal was crucial to shape the Portuguese language, given that there are more than one thousand words in Portuguese that have Arabic roots. Which is also why Arabs can learn Portuguese more easily! Here are some examples of those words:

English

Portuguese

Arabic

sugar açúcar السكر (asukkar)
alcohol álcool الكحول (al-kuhul)
neighborhood bairro حي (hayu)
hanger cabide الكابد (al-kabid)
pillow almofada المخدة (al-mohada)
tile azulejo الزليج (azulejo)
saffron açafrão الزعفران (azafran)

Origin of the Brazilian Portuguese

Portugal occupied Brazil in 1500 and the Portuguese language took root, while the indigenous languages started to disappear slowly. But their existence was crucial for the Portuguese spoken in Brazil nowadays. The

Brazilian Portuguese is influenced by the indigenous languages, along with the African language read more

Romanian phrases to sound like a native

Romanian phrases to sound like a native

Why is it important to learn common Romanian expressions?

Learning vocabulary is probably one of the most important parts when it comes to studying a new language. Whether you want to learn Romanian for fun, to do your studies, find a job or visit this country of mystery and romance, you will most likely meet some colloquial language. Such informal words and phrases can cause many misunderstandings, that’s why it’s important to know them. If you will

learn and understand different informal Romanian phrases and words read more

Top 5 similarities between Kazakh and Turkish languages

Top 5 similarities between Kazakh and Turkish languages

It is widely known that people in Kazakhstan speak Russian as a second language and use Cyrillic script as a base for Kazakh alphabet. Therefore, many foreigners think that Kazakh language is similar to Russian. However, it is not true at all. The two languages are totally different, and they don’t share any resemblances in word formation, grammatical or lexical structure. Of course, you can find Russian loanwords in Kazah, but there are not so many.

Now you are puzzled, and you wonder

“if Kazakh is not like Russian, then how does it sound like it and to what language is it related?” read more

Russian verb conjugation – the simplest explanation and tips

Russian verb conjugation – the simplest explanation and tips

The Russian language is in the top most spoken languages in the world, with =&0=&. It is considered one of the most complex languages and a very rich one. Learning Russian will help you discover the interesting Russian culture and history and meet a lot of people. Russian grammar is sometimes unreachable for native speakers because it’s so elaborate, so don’t worry if you make some mistakes in Russian. Since so many people want to learn this captivating language, we decided to help you with the Russian grammar and with the Russian verb conjugation in particular.

Want it or not, when you’ll learn Russian vocabulary you will need to know some Russian verbs, otherwise, you will simply not be able to form any sentence. Learning the Russian tenses and Russian conjugation is also an important aspect if you want to form correct sentences and to be understood when you speak. Continue reading and you will see how simple it can be to learn the main Russian grammar rules of Russian verb conjugation.

Russian personal pronouns

In order to learn the Russian verb tenses and conjugate the verbs, you will need to know the Russian personal pronouns in the nominative. You will use these Russian pronouns as the subject of the verb just as you do in your language. Take a look at the following table to learn the Russian pronouns in the nominative case:

Type English Russian
First person singular I я
Second person singular you ты
Third person singular he/she/it он/она/оно
First person plural we мы
Second person plural you вы
Third person plural they они

Russian verb infinitives


Another important Russian verb aspect you will need to know before learning Russian verb conjugation is =&1=&. What is an infinitive? It’s the simplest and the most basic form of a verb, the one you find in dictionaries. The infinitives are not conjugated, so in order to do that, you will just need to replace their endings with the correct suffix. The same rule applies when forming conjugated Russian verbs in specific tenses.

Russian infinitives have 2 endings: =&2=& if it’s after a consonant (идти – to go) and =&3=& after a vowel (страдать – to suffer). All you will need to do is detect the infinitive ending and replace it with the suffixes you will learn in this article.

Types of Russian verb conjugations

There are 2 types of Russian verb conjugation depending on the endings of the Russian verbs. The first conjugation includes Russian verbs that end in:

  • ать
  • еть
  • уть
  • оть
  • ыть
  • ять

There are a few =&4=& with the first conjugation: пить (to drink), жить (to live), брить (to shave).

The second Russian verb conjugation refers to the verbs that end in:

  • ить
  • еть
  • ать

There are also some =&4=& here: видеть (to see), обидеть (to offend), смотреть (to look), ненавидеть (to hate), терпеть (to endure); дышать (to breathe), слышать (to hear), держать (to hold).

Special types of Russian verbs


As in many other languages, there are Russian irregular verbs that are conjugated differently from the pattern described. Their conjugation can have other endings or their main part of the verb (the stem) can change. Some examples are говорить (to speak), рисовать (to draw), вставать (to get up).

Besides, there is a special category of Russian verbs called =&6=&. Their action indicates the idea of “self”, so when you want to say “I put shoes on myself”, you will use a reflexive verb:

  • to shoe – обувать
  • to put shoes on myself – обуваться

These Russian verbs are used to express a feeling or state, to show reciprocity and to indicate that a person does something to himself.

The present tense of Russian verbs

There is only one present tense in Russian and it is used when the action occurs regularly, when it takes place exactly at the time of speaking (as the present continuous in English) and when it began in the past and continues or stopped at the moment of speaking (present perfect in English). The Russian present tense conjugations, again, are formed by =&7=&.

Person Personal pronoun First conjugation endings Second conjugation endings
First person singular я -ю / -у (after consonants) -ю / -у (after ч-,щ-,ш-,ж-)
Second person singular ты -ешь / -ёшь (when it’s stressed) -ишь
Third person singular он/она/оно -ет / -ёт (stressed) -ит
First person plural мы -ем / -ём (stressed) -им
Second person plural вы -ете / -ёте (stressed) -ите
Third person plural они -ют / -ую (after consonants) -ят / -ат (after ч-, щ-, ш-, ж-)

Present tense conjugation example

Person Personal pronoun First conjugation endings Second conjugation endings
First person singular я читаю (I read) говорю (I speak)
Second person singular ты читаешь говоришь
Third person singular он/она/оно читает говорит
First person plural мы читаем говорим
Second person plural вы читаете говорите
Third person plural они читают говорят

The past tense of Russian verbs


The past tense Russian verbs conjugation works a bit differently. This time, you will need to =&8=& depending on gender. Note that there are many exceptions and the best thing to do is find a verb that interests you and learn its conjugation.

Gender Ending Example from звонить

(to call)

Masculine singular звонил (called)
Feminine singular -ла звонила
Neuter singular -ло звонило
Plural -ли звонили

The future tense of Russian verbs

There are 2 forms of the future tense in Russian: the simple future and the compound future. =&9=&. To form the simple future, you will follow the present tense pattern (change the endings for the 1st and 2nd conjugation). This time, you will change the endings of the so-called =&10=&. These are the verbs used to talk about actions that will finish with success. Here are some examples:

English verb

Imperfective

Perfective

to do делать сделать
to listen слушать послушать
to walk гулять погулять
to call звонить позвонить
to offer a gift дарить подарить
to eat есть съесть
to write писать написать

You will need to list all the perfective verbs you learn along the way and start forming the simple future using the following endings:

Person

Personal pronoun First conjugation endings

Second conjugation endings

First person singular я -ю (-у)
Second person singular ты -ешь -ишь
Third person singular он/она/оно -ет -ит
First person plural мы -ем -им
Second person plural вы -ете -ите
Third person plural они -ют -ят (-ат)

The compound future tense of Russian verbs

We use the compound future tense in Russian to talk about =&11=&. The form of the compound future is =&12=&. As you can see, it’s similar to the simple future in English. In this case, you will just need to conjugate the auxiliary “быть” using the following pattern:

Person Pronoun Conjugation of искать (to search)
First person singular я буду искать
Second person singular ты будешь искать
Third person singular он/она/оно будет читать
First person plural мы будем читать
Second person plural вы будете читать
Third person plural они будут читать

Tips to learn Russian verb conjugation

1. Learn the most commonly used Russian verbs. That’s important because you’re likely to hear them very often in conversations or find them in texts.
2. Practice the common Russian verb conjugation. Only this way, you will learn to conjugate Russian verbs in less time until you will do it automatically.
3. Don’t be scared to converse in Russian! Native speakers will appreciate your effort to learn their language and will correct you when there’s the need.
4. Read more in Russian and pay attention to the verb form used in sentences and the Russian verb endings you meet.
5. Use flashcards! They are the easiest way to master Russian verbs and understand the complex Russian verb aspect of conjugation! VocApp is one of the best resources when it comes to learning vocabulary. Our flashcards will introduce you to the most common Russian verbs along with their Russian pronunciation, the Russian to English translation and of course, example sentences with Russian verbs. You will see the Russian verb conjugation in practice and remember the new words much easier! Try our fun and effective

course with the 500 most important Russian verbs read more